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Forest, Field and Sea: Cultural Diversity in the Indonesian Archipelago

On the Indonesian national emblem the 14th century Hindu-Javanese phrase, Bhinneka Tunggal Ika, "Unity in Diversity," appears on a banner clutched in the talons of an eagle. The phrase honors these sometimes contradictory national goals, which seek to unify a complex nation and at the same time to respect the enormous cultural diversity of its 300 distinct ethnic groups living on more than 1,000 islands distributed across 3,000 miles of ocean. Indonesia is the fifth most populous country in the world with a population of over 180 million.

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