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South Africa

Since the Dutch first settled at the Cape of Good Hope in 1652, South Africa's bountiful land and mineral riches have been sources of conflict. Over the course of several centuries, Dutch (now the Afrikaners) and British settlers were able to seize land from the indigenous African peoples. By the end of the 19th century, the Europeans dominated over 90 percent of the territory. When diamonds and gold were discovered in the late 19th century, European settlers prevented Africans from sharing in the land's wealth and transformed them into a tightly controlled, poorly paid labor force.

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