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In and Out of Time: Festivals, Liminality and Communitas

Victor Turner, internationally known anthropologist and University of Chicago faculty member, has long studied rituals, carnivals, pilgrimages, and celebrations. Some of his major contributions to contemporary thought derive from his analysis of these kinds of events.

Although festivals have been celebrated throughout history to fulfill human needs, anthropologists have only recently begun to analyze their functions in contemporary societies. Dr. Turner's work ranks in the forefront of this movement.

Briefly, Turner sees these occasions and events like them as existing both in and out of the regular structure of society. In our daily lives, we

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